Online Media / Social Media
Cite only original content from social media sites as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn and so forth. Social media posts may contain text only, text with audiovisuals (e.g., photos, videos), or audiovisuals alone.
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. URL
Author, A. A. [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Facebook [Status update]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Author, A. A. [@username]. (n.d.). Facebook [Facebook page]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Instagram, Photo or Video
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words. [Video/Photograph]. Site
Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Highlight title [Highlight]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from
Online Forum Post
Author, A. A. & Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher.
|Source Type||Reference List||
National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew
African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented
assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet].
Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/121634635 2063537154
(National Geographic. 2020)
National Geographic (2020)
APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter.
Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style
UNICEF Malaysia [@myUNICEF]. (n.d.). Championing all rights, for all
children, anywhere [Twitter profile].Twitter. Retrieved December 1, 2020,
Note : Provide retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.
(APA Style, n.d.)
APA Style (n.d.)
(UNICEF Malaysia, n.d.)
UNICEF Malaysia (n.d.)
Ramsay, G. [@gordonramsay]. (2020, November 28). A classic hearty
pasta dish perfect as the temperature drop! [Video].Facebook.
Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at
serious risk during Bangladesh’s monsoon session. My fellow
UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached]
[Status update]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD
National Geographic. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook.
Retrieved December 2, 2020, from https://www.facebook
(National Geographic, n.d.)
National Geographic (n.d.)
|Instagram, Photo or Video||
APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male
depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse
treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video].
World Wildlife Fund [@world_wildlife], (2020, November 18). Here’s
some good news for your feed: Seeddispering drones will help
rebuild koala populations devastated by the Australian bushfires.
[Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com
(APA Public Interest Directorat, 2019)
APA Public Interest Directorat (2019)
(World Wildlife Fund, 2020)
World Wildlife Fund (2020)
Consumer Forum Malaysia [@cfm_malaysia]. (n.d.). Online pocket talk.
[Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from
Note: Although each story within the highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated, so use "n.d." in the reference. Because the highlight can be changed at any time, with content added or removed, include the retrieval date with the URL.
(Consumer Forum Malaysia, n.d.)
Consumer Forum Malaysia (n.d.)
|Online Forum Post||
Aster [AsteroidPizza39]. (2020, August 30). Students/Teachers of
Reddit, what’s the best ‘forgot to turn off the mic’ story during
virtual learning? [Online forum post]. Reddit.
NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author, then use the screen name. However, if the author provides a real name, use their real name instead. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. Follow the date with the subject line, the thread of the message (not in italics). Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title, as in other types of references.