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APA Style 7th Edition

Other Non-Print Sources

Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews

Interviews fall into three categories: published interviews, personal interviews, and research participant interviews. However, only published interviews require a formal citation in your reference list. To cite a published interview, follow the format for the reference type (e.g., magazine article, podcast episode). Cite a personal interview as a personal communication.

 

Personal Communications

Any communication that cannot be directly retrieved by a reader is considered “personal communication.” Emails, phone conversations, text messages, and social media messages are all examples of personal communication.

Example : (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2020).

 

Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media may have both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, youTube videos), audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings) or visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs). The reference examples are divided into those categories and follow the same format.

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of work [Description]. Production

     company. URL

 

Audio Works

Describe the audio work in square brackets--for example, "[Audio podcast episode]," "[Song]," and so forth in the title element of the reference. In the source element, provide the name of the label for music albums or singles; or the name of the streaming site that hosts an audio podcast. If you want to reproduce an audio work rather than just cite it, you may need to seek permission from the copyright owner.

 

Visual Works

Audiovisual media may have both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, youTube videos), audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings) or visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs). The reference examples are divided into those categories and follow the same format.

 

Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Film or Video

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The

     fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed.

     On DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

 

Chapman, B., Hickner, S., & Wells, S. (Directors). (1998). The

     prince of Egypt [Film]. DreamWorks Pictures.

(Jackson2001)

Jackson (2001)

 

 

(Chapman el al., 1998)

Chapman et al. (1998)

TV Series

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive

     Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown

     Deadline Productions; HBO.

 

Note : When the series spans multiple years, separate the years with an en dash. If the series is still airing, replace the second year with word “present” eg: (2015- present).

(Simon et al., 2002-2008)

Simon et al. (2002-2008)

TV Series episode or Webisode

Oakley, B., & Weinstein, J. (Writers), & Lynch, J. (Director).

     (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part One) (Season 6,

      Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks,

     M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers). The

     Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film

     Corporation.

 

Note : Include writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor’s name. “Writer” and “Director” are shown here, but “Executive Director” or other role descriptions might also be used. Provide the season number and episode after the title in parentheses.

(Oakley et al., 1995)

Oakley et al. (1995)

TED Talk

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things

     [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/si

     mone_giertz_why_you_sh ould_make_useless_things

 

TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video].

     YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=psN1DORYYVO

 

Note : When the TED Talk comes from TED’s website (as with the Giertz example), use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.

(Giertz, 2018)

Giertz (2018)

 

 

(TED, 2012)

TED (2012)

Webinar, Recorded

Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar].

     American Psychiatric Association. https://education.psyc

     hiatry.org/Users/ProductDetails .aspx?ActivityID=6172

 

Note : Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars. Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications

(Goldberg, 2018)

Goldberg (2018)

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

     https://vimeo.com/244405542

 

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on

     water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?

     v=qm1xGfOZJc8

(Cutts, 2017)

Cutts (2017

 

(University of Oxford, 2018)

University of Oxford (2018)

Music Album

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV

     1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the

     Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

 

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

 

Note : For a recording of a classical work, provide the composer as the author, and note (in square brackets) following the title the individual or group who recorded the version you used. Provide the publication date for the version you used, and provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference.

(Bach, 2010)

Bach (2010)

 

 

(Bowie, 2016)

Bowie (2016)

 

Single Song or Track

Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood;

     Columbia

 

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [song

     recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Compete

     symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

 

Note : If the song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference. Include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

(Beyonce, 2016)

Beyonce (2016)

 

(Beethoven, 2012)

Beethoven (2012)

Podcast

Thompson, D. (Host). (2018-present). Crazy/Genius [Audio podcast].

     The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/podcasts/crazygenius/

 

Govey, J. (Host). (2020, November 28). Woman’s hour: The crown,

     Diana and a new generation. [Audio podcast].

     https://player.fm/series/womans-hour.

 

Webster, M., & Abumrad, J. (Hosts). (2020, September 11). Bringing

      gamma back, again [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC

     Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles

     /bringing-gamma-back

 

Hannah-Jones, N. (Host). (2019, September 13). How the bad blood

     started (No. 4) [Audio podcast episode]. In 1619. The New York

     Times. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/episode-4-howthe-

     bad-bloodstarted/id1476928106?i=1000449718223

(Thompson, 2018)

Thompson (2018)

 

(Govey, 2020)

Govey (2020)

 

 

(Webster & Abumrad, 2020)

Webster and Abumrad (2020)

 

 

(Hannah-Jones, 2019)

Hannah-Jones (2019)

PowerPoint Slides or Lecture Notes

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and

     formatting references for presentations [Powerpoint slides].

     Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login

 

Rustad, J. (n.d.). Importance of scholarly voice [Google slides].

     Blackboard@CSS. https://courses.css.edu/

 

Note : When citing an online slides and lecture notes, provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title.

(Mack & Spake, 2018)

Mack and Spake (2018)

 

 

(Rustad, n.d.).

Rustad (n,d,)