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APA Style 7th Edition

In-text Citations

Author Type Details In-Text Citations
General / 1 Author Use the surname of the author for your in-text citation. (Mathews, 2010, p. 14)
2 Authors

Parenthetical Citations

Narrative Citations

(Smith & Miller, 2009)

Smith and Miller (2009)

3 or more Authors

Parenthetical Citations

Narrative Citations

(Smith et al., 2009)

Smith et al. (2009)

Organizational Authors

If the author of a work is an organization, company, or group, list that group's full name in the in-text citation.

If the organization has a common acronym, you may introduce it in your first in-text citation and then use the abbreviation in all subsequent citations:

(Santa Fe College, 2019)

(American Library Association [ALA], 2010)

(ALA, 2010)

No Author If there is truly no author for a reference, you use the title, or first few words of the title. Note that you should capitalize the words in the title for the in-text citation. Place in quotation marks if the title is an article or chapter. Italicize if it is a book, webpage, etc.

(“How To Find,” 2019)

(Oxford English Dictionary, 2010)



Date Type Details In-Text Citations
Year You will use the year of the resource in the in-text citation. Even if there is a more detailed date provided, only the year is included in the in-text citation. (Smith, 2019)
No Date

If there is no date for a reference, use the abbreviation n.d.

(Santa Fe College, n.d.). 

Smith (n.d.) states that…

Same Author/Date

If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them with letters. Letters will be assigned alphabetically by the order in which they are listed in the references list.





If both items are using n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:

Rowling, J. K. (1999a). Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999a)


Rowling, J. K. (1999b). Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999b)

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)



Page Numbers Type Details In-Text Citations
Page Numbers If you are using information from a single page, use the abbreviation p. (Smith, 2009, p. 12)
No Page Numbers

If there are no page numbers on your resource, use section headers, paragraph numbers, or other descriptions to direct your reader to the information you are citing. Example: para. 1, Slide 8, Conclusion section.

One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise from nothing" (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5)

(Shadid, 2020, paras. 2-3)

(Shimamura, 2017, Chapter 3)


If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation:

Pariser (2011) states that "your filter bubble is your own personal, unique universe of information that you live in online. And what's in your filter bubble depends on who you are, and it depends on what you do" (4:12).



Narrative citations are the preferred method of citing quotes. You may also use them for paraphrasing or

summarizing. The strength of narrative citations is that it flows better for a reader. A narrative citations weaves in the author's

Surname(s) into the text, and then adds in the year in parentheses. The page number will bookend the quote at the end.

Template In-Text Citations
Last name (Year) ... "quote" or paraphrase (p. X).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), rates for pregnancy, STDs and abortion are much higher in the US than in other industrialized countries (para. 1).

Pink (2009) explains that "rewards, by their very nature, narrow our focus. That’s helpful when there’s a clear path to a solution" (p. 42).

Robert et al. (2017) explored the impact of attentional bias and rumination on test anxiety in firstyear university students

A parenthetical citation encompasses the components of the in-text citation in parentheses at the end of the sentence, prior

to the closing period. This should mostly be used for paraphrasing, and typically not for direct quotes alone. Recall that a

page number is not necessary for paraphrasing, but is encouraged.

Template In-Text Citations
(Author, Date, p. X)

Most college students are limited in their research experience to using Google and struggle to learn how to effectively navigate and use the wide variety of resources available to them (Head, 2013).

Researchers have cautioned that flipped instruction needs to be carefully designed, both in overall pedagogical design (Banks & Henderson, 2019) and in the design of instructional videos (Obradovich et al., 2015).

Moreover, Standard II.5.2 explains that school psychologists "do not promote or condone the use of restricted psychological and educational tests…by individuals who are not qualified to use them" (NASP, 2010, p. 9).

To include two or more different resources in one citation, use a semicolon to separate them:

Combining Citations In-Text Citations
Combining Citations

Poor empathy development has been associated with negative outcomes including increased aggression, poorer quality relationships, and psychopathology across development (Batanova & Loukas, 2014; Gambin & Sharp, 2016).


Batanova and Loukas (2014) and Gambin and Sharp (2016) mentioned that …..


… as discussed (Bergeson, 2019; Bustillos, 2013; Weir, 2017).


Bergeson (2019), Bustillos (2013) and Weir (2017) stated that ….