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APA Style 7th Edition

Reference Format

Basic Format for Books

1 Author : 

Author Surname / Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for 

     subtitle. Publisher

2 Authors :

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B.  (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher

With Edition :

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year or publication)Title of book (edition). Publisher.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book :

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book

     (pages of chapter). Publisher.


Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

1 Author

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From

     attitudes to social action. (2nd ed.). American

     Psychological Association.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at

     our best and worst. Penguin Books.

(Jackson, 2019)

Jackson (2019)



(Sapolsky, 2017)

Sapolsky (2017)

Book published with new foreword by another author.

Kübler-Ross, E. (with Byock, I.). (2014). On death & dying:

     What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy &

     their own families. (50th anniversary ed.). Scribner.

     (Original work published 1969)

(Kübler-Ross, 1969/2014)

Kübler-Ross (1969/2014)

Anonymous Author

Anonymous. (2000). Maximum Security (3rd ed.). Prentice



Note : In your reference list, include such titles in your alphabetical listing as if 'Anonymous' were a true name.

(Anonymous, 2000)

Anonymous (2000)

Edited Book (Without Author/Authors)

Leitch, M. G., & Rushton, C. J. (Eds.). (2019). A new

     companion to Malory. D. S. Brewer.

Kesharwani, P. (Ed.). (2020). Nanotechnology based

     approaches for tuberculosis treatment. Academic Press.

Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., &

     Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2019). Microaggression theory: 

     Influence and implications. John Wiley & Sons.

(Leitch & Rushton, 2019)

Leitch and Rushton (2019


(Keshwarni, 2020)

Keshwarni (2020)


(Torino et al., 2019)

Torino et al. (2019)

Edited Book (With Author/Authors)

Austen, J. (2005). Mansfield Park (J. Wiltshire, Ed.).

     Cambridge University Press. (Original work published


(Austen, 1814/2005)

Austen (1814/2005)

A Translation

Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). Dover. (Original

     work published 2006).

Cho, N.-J. (2020). Kim Jiyoung, Born 1982: A Novel (J.

     Chang, Trans.). Liveright. (Original work published 2016).


Note : When you cite a republished work in your text, it should appear with both dates.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1966). La psychologie del’enfant

     [The psychology of the child]. Quadrige.

(Castro, 2006/2008)

Castro (2006/2008)


(Cho, 2016/2020)

Cho (2016/2020)





(Piaget & Inhelder, 1966)

Piaget and Inhelder (1966)


*Only for 2nd edition onwards.

Belcher, W. (2019). Writing your journal article in twelve

     weeks: A guide to academic publishing success (2nd ed.).

     University of Chicago Press.

Harris, L. A. (2001). Canadian copyright law. (3rd ed.).

     McGraw Hill Ryerson.

(Belcher, 2019)

Belcher (2019)



(Harris, 2001)

Harris (2001)

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Armstrong, D. (2019). Malory and character. In M. G. Leitch &

     C. J. Rushton (Eds.), A new companion to Malory (pp.

     144-163). D. S. Brewer.


Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21).

(Armstrong, 2019)

Armstrong (2019)

Multivolume Work

Levinson, D. & Ember, M. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopedia of

     cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). Henry Holt.

David, A., & Simpson, J. (Eds.). (2006). The Norton anthology

     of English literature: The Middle Ages (8th ed., Vol. A). W.

     W. Norton and Company.


Note : Use Vol. for a single volume and Vols. for multiple volumes.

(Levinson & Ember, 1996)

Levinson and Ember (1996)


(David & Simpson, 2006)

David and Simpson (2006)


Author, A. A. (Date of publication).Title of book. Publisher. m/full/url/.


Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)


Steed, J., & Stevenson, F. (2012). Sourcing ideas. AVA Publishing.


(Steed & Stevenson2012)

Steed and Stevenson (2012)

Articles in Periodicals

Basic Form

The APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined.

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue. Therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number),



Article Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume

Rush, M. A., Skora, J. I., Lawrence, J. H., & D'Aurora

     Richardson, L. (2019). Health care's new wilderness: The

     intersection of telehealth and ancillary services. Journal of

     Health Care Compliance, 21, 5-16.


Note : Continuous pagination throughout volume.

(Rush et al., 2019)

Rush et al. (2019)

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019).

     Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that   

     represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States.

     Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207-217.


Note : Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue. Therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

(Grady et al., 2019)

Grady et al. (2019)

Article in Journal, in press

Pachur, T., & Scheibehenne, B. (in press). Unpacking buyer-

     seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive

     modeling approach. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.



(Pachur & Scheibehenne, in press.). 

Pachur and Scheibehenne (in press) 

Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's

     schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

(Henry, 1990)

Henry (1990)

Article in a Newspaper

Harlan, C. (2013, April 2). North Korea vows to restart

     shuttered nuclear reactor that can make bombgrade

     plutonium. The Washington Post, A1, A4.


Note : If you used a print version of the newspaper article, provide the page or pages of the article after the newspaper title. Do not include the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.” before the page(s).



(Harlan, 2013)

Harlan (2013)

Letter to the Editor

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to

     the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

(Moller, 2002)

Moller (2002)


Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth

     [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under

     control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466- 467.

(Baumeister, 1993)

Baumeister (1993)





Author Surname, Initials., Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Encyclopedia. Publisher.



Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of article. In Author or Editor with (Ed.) or (Eds.), Title of

     Encyclopedia (Vols. xx, pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Source Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)


Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.) The Stanford

     encyclopedia of philosophy (summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. /behaviorism/

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica

     (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Encyclopedia Britannica.

(Graham, 2019)

Graham (2019)


(Bergmann, 1993)

Bergmann (1993)



Work Discussed in a Secondary Source


Author Last Name, A. A., & Author Last Name, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume

     number(issue number), pages.


Source Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Secondary Source

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993).

     Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel

     distributed-processing approaches. Psychological

     Review, 100, 589-608.


Note: Give the secondary source in the references list. In the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References.

In Seidenberg and McClelland's (1989, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) study ...

…as was found (Seidenberg and McClelland, 1989, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).



Government Document


If the author is sub-division use as the author and mention the parent organization.

When the author / organization and the website name are the same, omit the website name.


Source Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Government Document

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer

     treatment (NIH Publication No. 18- 2424). U.S. Department of Health

     and Human Services, National Institute of Health.


Office for Disability Issues. (2019). Disability action plan 2019-2023.

     New Zealand Ministry of Social Development.


Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia. (2020, October 5). Annex 2a:

     Management of suspected case not required admission.



Transport Department, The Government of the Hong Kong

     Administrative Region. (2019, April 19). 14 Intelligent Transport

     Systems (ITS).



(National Cancer Institute, 2018)

National Cancer Institute (2018)




(Office for Disability Issues, 2019)

Office for Disability Issues (2019)



(Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, 2020)

Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (2020)




(Transport Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, 2019)

Transport Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region (2019)



Report from a Private Organization


Author & publisher same.

Omit the publisher from the reference to avoid repetition.


Source Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Report from a Private Organization

Association of Ambulance Chief Executives & Joint

     Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee.

     (2019). JRCALC clinical guidelines 2019 pocket





American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice

     guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating

     disorders (2nd ed.).

(Association of Ambulance Chief Executives & Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee, 2019)


Association of Ambulance Chief Executives and Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee (2019).



(American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

American Psychiatric Association (2000)


Conference Paper


SourceType Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Published Conference Paper in Book Form

Hasmah Zanuddin, & Azizah Hamzah. (2007).

     International trade agreement of intellectual

     property rights (TRIPS), copyright issues & burden

     to enforce in Malaysia. In K.Y. Choi (Ed.), Korean

     studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic cooperation

     and development in research and education:

     Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of

     the Korean Studies Association of Southeast Asia

     University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (pp. 121-138).

     Universiti Malaya.

(Hasmah Zanuddin & Azizah Hamzah, 2007)

Hasmah Zanuddin and Azizah Hamzah (2007).

Proceedings published regularly online

Gross, J., & Böhm, R. (2020). Voluntary restrictions on self-

     reliance increase cooperation and mitigate wealth

     inequality. Proceedings of the National Academy of

     Sciences, 202013744.


Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., & Lent, R. (2008). The

     basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings

     of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 245-249.


Note : To cite proceedings that are published regularly, use the same format as periodical.

(Gross & Bohm, 2020)

Gross and Bohm (2020)





(Herculano-Houzel et al., 2008)

Herculano-Houzel et al. (2008)

Unpublished Conference Paper

Ardieansyah & Zuliskandar Ramli. (2019, July 27-28).

     Stakeholders in Sumatra Senepis’s tiger conservation

     area management [Paper presentation]. Seminar

      Antarabangsa Arkeologi, Sejarah, Bahasa dan Budaya Di

     Alam Melayu (ASBAM), Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.


Nadaraja Kannan. (2006, November). The economic

     depression of the 1930s: Its impact on race relations in

     the Federated Malay State [Paper presentation].

     International Association of Historians of Asia

     Conference, Manila, Philippines.

(Ardieansyah & Zuliskandar Ramli, 2019)

Ardieansyah and Zuliskandar Ramli (2019)




(Nadaraja Kannan, 2006)

Nadaraja Kannan (2006)

Poster Presentation at a Conference

Pearson, J. (2018, September 27-30). Fat talk and its effects

     on state-based body image in women [Poster

     presentation]. Australian Psychological Society 15

     Congress, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

(Pearson, 2018)

Perason (2018)



Source Type Reference List In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished)

Cheah, W. Y. (2019). Microalgae cultivation in palm oil mill

     effluent for fuel feedstock production [Unpublished

     doctoral dissertation]. Universiti Malaya.


Note : [Unpublished academic exercise];

           [Unpublished master’s thesis];

           [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]

(Cheah, 2019)

Cheah (2019).

Master's Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from a commercial database

Richardson, D. D. (2019). Purloined subjects: Race, gender,

     and the legacies of colonial surveillance in the British

     Caribbean (Publication No. 27602842) [Doctoral

     dissertation, The University of Akron]. ProQuest

     Dissertations and Theses Global.


Note : [Academic exercise];

            [Master’s thesis];

            [Doctoral dissertation].

(Richardson, 2019)

Richardson (2019)






Master’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from an institutional database (sometimes referred to as a Commons / Digital Archives) or Online

Ahmed, L. (2019). Scalable analysis of large datasets in life

     sciences [Doctoral dissertation, Royal Institute of

     Technology, Stockholm, Sweden]. KTH Diva-Portal.


Aini Hayati Abdul Rahim (2020). Surface roughness of cobalt

     chromium alloy fabricated with selective laser melting and

     conventional techniques [Master’s thesis, Universiti Malaya,

     Malaysia]. University of Malaya Student Repository.



Note :[Master’s thesis];

          [Doctoral dissertation].

(Ahmed, 2019)

Ahmed (2019)




(Aini Hayati Abdul Rahim, 2020)

Aini Hayati Abdul Rahim (2020)

Electronic Sources

Article with DOI:

Author Surname / Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume

     number, page range. 0


Article without DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue

     number if available).http://www.somead


Magazine Article (Online)

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine. m/fullurl


Newspaper Article (Online)

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page number(s),



Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Journal article with a DOI

Varalakshmi, R., & Arunachalam, K. (2020). Covid 2019 - role

     of faculty members to keep mental activeness of

      students. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102091-




Wooldridge, M. B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing

     with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores

     lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of

      Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211218.http:/




Note : APA 7th ed. does not include database information; instead,

the home page URL of the journal is used.

(Varalakshmi &  Arunachalam, 2019)

Varalakshmi and  Arunachalam (2019)




(Wooldridge & Shapka, 2012)

Wooldridge and Shapka (2012)

Journal article without a DOI from a website (nondatabase URL)

Ahmad Alif Kamal, Norhunaini Mohd Shaipullah, Liyana

     Truna, Muna Sabri, & Syahrul N Junaini. (2020).

     Transitioning to online learning during Covid-19

      pandemic: Case study of a Pre-University centre in

     Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Computer

     Science and Applications, 11.


(Ahmad Alif Kamal et al., 2020)

Ahmad Alif Kamal et al., (2020)

Journal article with a DOI, combination of individual and group authors

De Vries, R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & Members

     of Midwifery Science Work Group. (2013). What does it

     take to have a strong and independent profession of

     midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery,

     29(10), 1122-1128.


(De Vries et al., 2013)

De Vries et al., (2013)

Magazine Article

Georgiou, A(2020, September 9). Supercharged hurricane

     season may be so intense we need a whole new alphabet to

     name all the storms. Newsweek. https://www.newsweek


(Georgiou, 2020)

Georgiou (2020)

Newspaper article

Watson, S., Hubler, S., Ivory, D., & Gebeloff, R(2020, September 

     6). new front in America’s pandemic: College towns. The 

     New York Times



(Watson et al., 2020)

Watson et al. (2020)

Webpage & Website

Author or Group name. (Date of publication). Title of page. Site name (if applicable).



Webpage Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Webpage on a Website with an Individual Author

Ellis, R. (2020, September 11). Dining out linked to increased Covid-19

     risk. WebMD.


(Ellis, 2020)

Ellis (2020)

Webpage on a Website with Group Author

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)





(World Health Organization, 2020)

World Health Organization (2020)

Webpage on a Website with no date

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Depression.


(National Alliance on Mental Illness, n.d.).

National Alliance on Mental Illness (n.d.)

Computer Software / Mobile Apps

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B (Date of publication). Title of work (Version) [Computer software/Mobile app]. Publisher. m/full/url/


Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Computer Software / Mobile Apps

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014).

     Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer

     Software]. Biostat.

Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12)

     [Mobile app]. App Store.

     ates/id2819357 88?mt=8

(Borenstein et al.2014)

Borenstein et al. (2014)





Epocrates (2019)

Other Non-Print Sources


Interviews fall into three categories: published interviews, personal interviews, and research participant interviews. However, only published interviews require a formal citation in your reference list. To cite a published interview, follow the format for the reference type (e.g., magazine article, podcast episode). Cite a personal interview as a personal communication.


Personal Communications

Any communication that cannot be directly retrieved by a reader is considered “personal communication.” Emails, phone conversations, text messages, and social media messages are all examples of personal communication.

Example : (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2020).


Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media may have both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, youTube videos), audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings) or visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs). The reference examples are divided into those categories and follow the same format.

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of work [Description]. Production

     company. URL


Audio Works

Describe the audio work in square brackets--for example, "[Audio podcast episode]," "[Song]," and so forth in the title element of the reference. In the source element, provide the name of the label for music albums or singles; or the name of the streaming site that hosts an audio podcast. If you want to reproduce an audio work rather than just cite it, you may need to seek permission from the copyright owner.


Visual Works

Audiovisual media may have both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, youTube videos), audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings) or visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs). The reference examples are divided into those categories and follow the same format.


Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)

Film or Video

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The

     fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed.

     On DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.


Chapman, B., Hickner, S., & Wells, S. (Directors). (1998). The

     prince of Egypt [Film]. DreamWorks Pictures.


Jackson (2001)



(Chapman el al., 1998)

Chapman et al. (1998)

TV Series

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive

     Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown

     Deadline Productions; HBO.


Note : When the series spans multiple years, separate the years with an en dash. If the series is still airing, replace the second year with word “present” eg: (2015- present).

(Simon et al., 2002-2008)

Simon et al. (2002-2008)

TV Series episode or Webisode

Oakley, B., & Weinstein, J. (Writers), & Lynch, J. (Director).

     (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part One) (Season 6,

      Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks,

     M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers). The

     Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film



Note : Include writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor’s name. “Writer” and “Director” are shown here, but “Executive Director” or other role descriptions might also be used. Provide the season number and episode after the title in parentheses.

(Oakley et al., 1995)

Oakley et al. (1995)

TED Talk

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things

     [Video]. TED Conferences.

     mone_giertz_why_you_sh ould_make_useless_things


TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video].



Note : When the TED Talk comes from TED’s website (as with the Giertz example), use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.

(Giertz, 2018)

Giertz (2018)



(TED, 2012)

TED (2012)

Webinar, Recorded

Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar].

     American Psychiatric Association. https://education.psyc .aspx?ActivityID=6172


Note : Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars. Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications

(Goldberg, 2018)

Goldberg (2018)

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.


University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on

     water? [Video]. YouTube.


(Cutts, 2017)

Cutts (2017


(University of Oxford, 2018)

University of Oxford (2018)

Music Album

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV

     1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the

     Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)


Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.


Note : For a recording of a classical work, provide the composer as the author, and note (in square brackets) following the title the individual or group who recorded the version you used. Provide the publication date for the version you used, and provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference.

(Bach, 2010)

Bach (2010)



(Bowie, 2016)

Bowie (2016)


Single Song or Track

Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood;



Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [song

     recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Compete

     symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)


Note : If the song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference. Include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

(Beyonce, 2016)

Beyonce (2016)


(Beethoven, 2012)

Beethoven (2012)


Thompson, D. (Host). (2018-present). Crazy/Genius [Audio podcast].

     The Atlantic.


Govey, J. (Host). (2020, November 28). Woman’s hour: The crown,

     Diana and a new generation. [Audio podcast].


Webster, M., & Abumrad, J. (Hosts). (2020, September 11). Bringing

      gamma back, again [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC




Hannah-Jones, N. (Host). (2019, September 13). How the bad blood

     started (No. 4) [Audio podcast episode]. In 1619. The New York



(Thompson, 2018)

Thompson (2018)


(Govey, 2020)

Govey (2020)



(Webster & Abumrad, 2020)

Webster and Abumrad (2020)



(Hannah-Jones, 2019)

Hannah-Jones (2019)

PowerPoint Slides or Lecture Notes

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and

     formatting references for presentations [Powerpoint slides].



Rustad, J. (n.d.). Importance of scholarly voice [Google slides].



Note : When citing an online slides and lecture notes, provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title.

(Mack & Spake, 2018)

Mack and Spake (2018)



(Rustad, n.d.).

Rustad (n,d,)

Social Media

Online Media / Social Media

Cite only original content from social media sites as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn and so forth. Social media posts may contain text only, text with audiovisuals (e.g., photos, videos), or audiovisuals alone.


Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. URL


Twitter Profile

Author, A. A. [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL


Facebook Post

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Facebook [Status update]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL


Facebook Page

Author, A. A. [@username]. (n.d.). Facebook [Facebook page]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL


Instagram, Photo or Video

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words. [Video/Photograph]. Site

     Name. https://xxxxxx


Instagram Highlight

Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Highlight title [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from



Online Forum Post

Author, A. A. & Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. m/full/url/.


Source Type Reference List

In-Text Citations

(Parenthetical &Narrative)


National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew

     African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented

     assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet].

     Twitter. 2063537154

(National Geographic. 2020)

National Geographic (2020)

Twitter Profile

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter.

     Retrieved November 1, 2019, from


UNICEF Malaysia [@myUNICEF]. (n.d.). Championing all rights, for all

     children, anywhere [Twitter profile]. Retrieved December 1, 2020,



Note : Provide retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.

(APA Style, n.d.)

APA Style (n.d.)


(UNICEF Malaysia, n.d.)

UNICEF Malaysia (n.d.)

Facebook Post

Ramsay, G. [@gordonramsay]. (2020, November 28). A classic hearty

     pasta dish perfect as the temperature drop! [Video]. 287018885191


Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at

     serious risk during Bangladesh’s monsoon session. My fellow     

     UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached]

     [Status update]. Facebook.

(Ramsay, 2020)

Ramsay (2020)



(Gaiman, 2018)

Gaiman (2018)

Facebook Page

National Geographic. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook.

     Retrieved December 2, 2020, from https://www.facebook


(National Geographic, n.d.)

National Geographic (n.d.)

Instagram, Photo or Video

APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male

     depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse

     treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video].





World Wildlife Fund [@world_wildlife], (2020, November 18). Here’s

     some good news for your feed: Seeddispering drones will help

     rebuild koala populations devastated by the Australian bushfires.

     [Photograph]. Instagram.


(APA Public Interest Directorat, 2019)

APA Public Interest Directorat (2019)





(World Wildlife Fund, 2020)

World Wildlife Fund (2020)

Instagram Highlight

Consumer Forum Malaysia [@cfm_malaysia]. (n.d.). Online pocket talk.

     [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from


Note: Although each story within the highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated, so use "n.d." in the reference. Because the highlight can be changed at any time, with content added or removed, include the retrieval date with the URL.

(Consumer Forum Malaysia, n.d.)

Consumer Forum Malaysia (n.d.)

Online Forum Post

Aster [AsteroidPizza39]. (2020, August 30). Students/Teachers of

     Reddit, what’s the best ‘forgot to turn off the mic’ story during

     virtual learning? [Online forum post]. Reddit.



NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author, then use the screen name. However, if the author provides a real name, use their real name instead. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. Follow the date with the subject line, the thread of the message (not in italics). Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title, as in other types of references.

(Aster, 2020)

Aster (2020)