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APA Style 7th Edition

General Rules

List the surname first, followed by a comma and the initials. Use one space between initials.

Single Author

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in       

     Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

List by their surname and initialsUse one space between initials. Use a comma to separate a first author’s initials from the

second author name and use the ampersand (&) instead of "and."


Two Authors

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The 

     hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-


List by their surname and initials. Use one space between initials. Use a serial comma to separate author names, while the

last author name is preceded again by ampersand (&).





Three to 20 Authors

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., White, A., Ganster, D. C., & Harlow, T.

     (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of

     stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.


Young, S., Adamo, N., Ásgeirsdóttir, B. B., Branney, P., Beckett, M., Colley, W., Cubbin, S.,

     Deeley, Q., Farrag, E., Gudjonsson, G., Hill, P., Hollingdale, J., Kilic, O., Lloyd, T.,

     Mason, P., Paliokosta, E., Perecherla, S., Sedgwick, J., Skirrow, C., & Tierney, K. (2020).

     Females with ADHD: An expert consensus statement taking a lifespan approach

     providing guidance for the identification and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity

     disorder in girls and women. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 1-27.


List by their surname and initials. APA 7th ed. uses “. . .” instead, replacing all authors between the 19th author and the last




More than 20 Authors

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha,

     S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J.,

     Mo,  K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP / NCAR

     40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorologica Society, 77(3), 437-


List the surname first, followed by a comma and the initials but retain the hyphen. If the second element of a hyphenated

name is lowercase, treat it as a single name.



Hyphenated Name​​​​​​​

Ai-Jun Xu

Cite as : Xu, A.-J.


Lee-ann Raboso 

Cite as : Raboso, L.

List by their hyphenated surname and initials. Cite the hyphenated surname exactly as it appears.


Hyphenated Surname​​​​​​​

Abreu‐Ferreira, D. (2019). Women and the acquisition, transmission, and execution of public

     offices in early modern Portugal. Gender & History, 31(2), 383-403.

List by their hyphenated surname and initials. Cite two-part surname exactly as it appears.


Two-part Surname​​​​​​

García Iommi, L. (2019). Women as icons in PostTrauma Societies: "Disappearing" women in

     Argentine national cinema. New Political Science, 41(1), 55-79.

List by their hyphenated surname and initials. Use comma to separate initials.


Names with Suffixes such as Jr. and III​​​​​​

Hugo Carrington III

Cite as : Carrington, H., III.


David Ashton Blake Jr

Cite as : Blake, D. A., Jr.

Omit bin/binti.

Author - Malay Names (without family names)​​​​​​​

Asmah Binti Omar


Asmah Omar. (1991). Kemahiran berbahasa. Penerbitan Pustaka Antara.

Surname first, followed by author initials.


Author - Chinese Names​​​​​​

Chu Chin Ning


Chu, C. N. (1995). Simulated counter-current adsorption processes: A comparison of

     modeling strategies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 56, 59-65.

Surname followed by the initials of the English name and the author initials.

Author - Chinese Names with English Names​​​​​​

Vincent Foo Hiap Khian


Foo, V. H. K. (1983). Sarawak: Mini episodes of the past. Fajar Bakti.

Omit d/o, s/o, a/l, a/p

Author-Indian & Sikh Names (without surname / family name)​​​​​​

Narrayani a/p Jeganathan.


Cite as  : Narrayani Jeganathan.

Cite as it is


Inherited Names​​​​​​

Raja Ahmad Niza.


Cite as : Raja Ahmad Niza.

Omit title


Conferred titles​​​​​​

Tun Mahathir Mohamad


Cite as : Mahathir Mohamad.

Cite under the department official name.

Local Government Institution as Author​​​​​​

Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Perak.

Cite under the department official name.

Foreign Government Institution as Author​​​​​​

Ministry of Health–Manatū Hauora

If the name starts with Foundation (Yayasan), Board (Lembaga), cite as it is given.

Unique Corporate Body Names​​​​​​

Yayasan Sabah

Cite as it is.

Organization as Author​​​​​​

Universiti Malaya.

American Psychological Association.

Do not use a comma to separate two group authors. When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of

a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference.

Group Authors (if more than one organization as author)​​​​​​

American Psychological Association & National Institutes of Health.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research.

Cite as : National Institute of Nursing Research.

Do not include the numbers.

Conference Names with Numbers​​​​​​

Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics Conference


Cite as : Asia-Pacific Physics Conference

Do not use ‘Anonymous’. The title of the work should appear before the year of publication. If, and only if, the work is signed

“Anonymous,” use “Anonymous” as the author.

Author Unavailable​​​​​​

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Merriam-Webster.