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Information Literacy: Identifying Type of References

An overview of the help that we can offer to support your studies and research

Identifying References


Reading, reference list or bibliography consist of various types of references. In order to locate these materials in the library catalog, information in the reference should be identified and understood first. References include printed and electronic format.

Type of References in Printed Format:

  • Book
  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Unpublished Conference Paper
  • Published Conference Paper
  • Thesis/ Academic Exercise

Type of Reference in Electronic Format:

  • Journal Article from Online Database
  • Journal Article from Internet



  • Example of Book:

Anderson, R. (2000). Security engineering: A guide to building dependable distributed systems. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

Author. (Year). Book Title: Subtitle. (Edition). Place(State Name, Country Name): Publisher. 

  • Example of Book Chapter:

Carles, M. C., & Sucher, N. J. (2005). Polymerase chain reaction on microchips. In S. D. Minteer (Ed.), Microfluidic techniques: Reviews and protocols (pp.115- 120). Selangor, Malaysia: Humana Press.

Chapter Author. (Year). Chapter Title. In Editor/s. Book Title: Subtitle. (Page number). Place (State Name, Country Name): Publisher.

  • Example of Journal Article

Ginter, M. B. (2008).Transatlantic studies: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 6(1), 355-374.

Author. (Year). Article Title: Subtitle. Journal title, Volume(No), Page number. 

  • Example of Published Conference Paper

Goh, J. (2000). Bioengineering in orthopaedic surgery. In Noor Azuan Abu Osman & Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas (Eds.), Proceedings of the National Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2000 (pp. 12-13). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Fakulti Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaya. 

Author (Year). Paper Title. In Editor/s. Proceeding Title (pp. Page number). Place (State Name, Country Name): Publisher

  • Example of Unpublished Conference Paper

Hor, M. (2002, March). The independence of the criminal justice system in Singapore. Paper presented at the Asian Science Seminar, Fukuoka, Japan. 

Author, A. A. (Year, month). Paper Title. Paper presented at the Conference Name, Place.